Custom partitioning with Maas and Curtin

Introduction

Once in a while, I get to tackle issues that have little or no documentation other than the official documentation of the product and the product’s source code.  You may know from experience that product documentation is not always sufficient to get a complete configuration working. This article intend to flesh out a solution to customizing disk configurations using Curtin.

This article take for granted that you are familiar with Maas install mechanisms, that you already know how to customize installations and deploy workloads using Juju.

While my colleagues in the Maas development team have done a tremendous job at keeping the Maas documentation accurate (see Maas documentation), it does only cover the basics when it comes to Maas’s preseed customization, especially when it comes to Curtin’s customization.

Curtin is Maas’s fastpath installer which is meant to replace Debian’s installer (familiarly known as d-i). It does a complete machine installation much faster than with the standard debian method.  But while d-i is well known and it is easy to find example of its use on the web, Curtin does not have the same notoriety and, hence, not as much documentation.

Theory of operation

When the fastpath installer is used to install a maas unit (which is now the default), it will send the content of the files prefixed with curtin_ to the unit being installed.  The curtin_userdata contains cloud-config type commands that will be applied by cloud-init when the unit is installed. If we want to apply a specific partitioning scheme to all of our unit, we can modify this file and every unit will get those commands applied to it when it installs.

But what if we only have one or a few servers that have specific disk layout that require partitioning ?  In the following example, I will suppose that we have one server, named curtintest which has a one terabyte disk (1 TB) and that we want to partition this disk with the following partition table :

  • Partition #1 has the /boot file system and is bootable
  • Partition #2 has the root (/) file system
  • Partition #3 has a 31 Gb file system
  • Partition #4 has 32 Gb of swap space
  • Partition #5 has the remaining disk space

Since only one server has such a disk, the partitioning should be specific to that curtintest server only.

Setting up Curtin development environment

To get to a working Maas partitioning setup, it is preferable to use Curtin’s development environment to test the curtin commands. Using Maas deployment to test each command quickly becomes tedious and time consuming.  There is a description on how to set it up in the README.txt but here are more details here.

Aside from putting all the files under one single directory, the steps described here are the same as the one in the README.txt file :

$ mkdir -p download
$ DLDIR=$(pwd)/download
$ rel="trusty"
$ arch=amd64
$ burl="http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/$rel/current/"
$ for f in $rel-server-cloudimg-${arch}-root.tar.gz $rel-server-cloudimg-{arch}-disk1.img; do wget "$burl/$f" -O $DLDIR/$f; done
$ ( cd $DLDIR && qemu-img convert -O qcow $rel-server-cloudimg-${arch}-disk1.img $rel-server-cloudimg-${arch}-disk1.qcow2)
$ BOOTIMG="$DLDIR/$rel-server-cloudimg-${arch}-disk1.qcow2"
$ ROOTTGZ="$DLDIR/$rel-server-cloudimg-${arch}-root.tar.gz"
$ mkdir src
$ bzr init-repo src/curtin
$ (cd src/curtin && bzr  branch lp:curtin trunk.dist )
$ (cd src/curtin && bzr  branch trunk.dist trunk)
$ cd src/curtin/trunk

You now have an environment you can use with Curtin to automate installations. You can test it by using the following command which will start a VM and run “curtin install” in it.  Once you get the prompt, login with :

username : ubuntu
password : passw0rd

$ sudo ./tools/launch $BOOTIMG --publish $ROOTTGZ -- curtin install "PUBURL/${ROOTTGZ##*/}"

Using Curtin in the development environment

To test Curtin in its environment, simply remove  — curtin install “PUBURL/${ROOTTGZ##*/}” at the end of the statement. Once logged in, you will find the Curtin executable in /curtin/bin :

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo -s
root@ubuntu:~# /curtin/bin/curtin --help
usage: main.py [-h] [--showtrace] [--verbose] [--log-file LOG_FILE]
{block-meta,curthooks,extract,hook,in-target,install,net-meta,pac
k,swap}
...

positional arguments:
{block-meta,curthooks,extract,hook,in-target,install,net-meta,pack,swap}

optional arguments:
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
--showtrace
--verbose, -v
--log-file LOG_FILE

Each of Curtin’s commands have their own help :

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo -s
root@ubuntu:~# /curtin/bin/curtin install --help
usage: main.py install [-h] [-c FILE] [--set key=val] [source [source ...]]

positional arguments:
source what to install

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-c FILE, --config FILE
read configuration from cfg
--set key=val define a config variable

 

Creating Maas’s Curtin preseed commands

Now that we have our Curtin development environment available, we can use it to come up with a set of commands that will be fed to Curtin by Maas when a unit is created.

Maas uses preseed files located in /etc/maas/preseeds on the Maas server. The curtin_userdata preseed file is the one that we will use as a reference to build our set of partitioning commands.  During the testing phase, we will use the -c option of curtin install along with a configuration file that will mimic the behavior of curtin_userdata.

We will also need to add a fake 1TB disk to Curtin’s development environment so we can use it as a partitioning target. So in the development environment, issue the following command :

$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 boot.disk 1000G Formatting ‘boot.disk’, fmt=qcow2 size=1073741824000 encryption=off cluster_size=65536 lazy_refcounts=off

sudo ./tools/launch $BOOTIMG –publish $ROOTTGZ

ubuntu: ubuntu password: passw0rd

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo -s root@ubuntu:~# cat /proc/partitions

major minor  #blocks  name

253        0    2306048 vda 253        1    2305024 vda1 253       16        426 vdb 253       32 1048576000 vdc 11        0    1048575 sr0

We can see that the 1000G /dev/vdc is indeed present.  Let’s now start to craft the conffile that will receive our partitioning commands. To test the syntax, we will use two simple commands :

root@ubuntu:~# cat << EOF > conffile 
partitioning_commands:
  builtin: []
  01_partition_make_label: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vdc", "-s", "'","mklabel","msdos","'"]
  02_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vdc", "-s", "'","mkpart","primary","1049K","538M","'"] 
sources:
  01_primary: http://192.168.0.13:9923//trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-root.tar.gz
  EOF

The sources: statement is only there to avoid having to repeat the SOURCE portion of the curtin command and is not to be used in the final Maas configuration. The URL is the address of the server from which you are running the Curtin development environment.

WARNING

The builtin [] statement is VERY important. It is there to override Curtin’s native builtin statement which is to partition the disk using “block-meta simple”.  If it is removed, Curtin will overwrite he partitioning with its default configuration. This comes straight from Scott Moser, the main developer behind Curtin.

Now let’s run the Curtin command :

root@ubuntu:~# /curtin/bin/curtin install -c conffile

Curtin will run its installation sequence and you will see a display which you should be familiar with if you installed units with Maas previously.  The command will most probably exit on error, comlaining about the fact that install-grub received an argument that was not a block device. We do not need to worry about that at the motent.

Once completed, have a look at the partitioning of the /dev/vdc device :

root@ubuntu:~# parted /dev/vdc print
Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)
Disk /dev/vdc: 1074GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
1      1049kB  538MB   537MB   primary   ext4

The partitioning commands were successful and we have the /dev/vdc disk properly configured.  Now that we know that the mechanism works, let try with a complete configuration file. I have found that it was preferable to start with a fresh 1TB disk :

root@ubuntu:~# poweroff

$ rm -f boot.img

$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 boot.disk 1000G
Formatting ‘boot.disk’, fmt=qcow2 size=1073741824000 encryption=off cluster_size=65536 lazy_refcounts=off

sudo ./tools/launch $BOOTIMG –publish $ROOTTGZ

ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo -s

root@ubuntu:~# cat << EOF > conffile 
partitioning_commands:
  builtin: [] 
  01_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Partitioning disk ###'"]
  01_partition_make_label: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mklabel","msdos","'"]
  02_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","primary","1049k","538M","'"]
  02_partition_set_flag: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","set","1","boot","on","'"]
  04_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","primary","538M","4538M","'"]
  05_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","extended","4538M","1000G","'"]
  06_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","25.5G","57G","'"]
  07_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","57G","89G","'"]
  08_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","89G","1000G","'"]
  09_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Creating filesystems ###'"]
  10_partition_make_fs: ["/sbin/mkfs", "-t", "ext4", "/dev/vda1"]
  11_partition_label_fs: ["/sbin/e2label", "/dev/vda1", "cloudimg-boot"]
  12_partition_make_fs: ["/sbin/mkfs", "-t", "ext4", "/dev/vda2"]
  13_partition_label_fs: ["/sbin/e2label", "/dev/vda2", "cloudimg-rootfs"]
  14_partition_mount_fs: ["sh", "-c", "mount /dev/vda2 $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT"]
  15_partition_mkdir: ["sh", "-c", "mkdir $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT/boot"]
  16_partition_mount_fs: ["sh", "-c", "mount /dev/vda1 $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT/boot"]
  17_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Filling /etc/fstab ###'"]
  18_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo 'LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs / ext4 defaults 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]
  19_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo 'LABEL=cloudimg-boot /boot ext4 defaults 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]
  20_partition_make_swap: ["sh", "-c", "mkswap /dev/vda6"]
  21_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo '/dev/vda6 none swap sw 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]
sources: 01_primary: http://192.168.0.13:9923//trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-root.tar.gz EOF

You will note that I have added a few statement like [“echo”, “‘### Partitioning disk ###'”] that will display some logs during the execution. Those are not necessary.
Now let’s try a second test with the complete configuration file :

root@ubuntu:~# /curtin/bin/curtin install -c conffile

root@ubuntu:~# parted /dev/vdc print
Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)
Disk /dev/vdc: 1074GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
1      1049kB  538MB   537MB   primary   ext4         boot
2      538MB   4538MB  4000MB  primary   ext4
3      4538MB  1000GB  995GB   extended               lba
5      25.5GB  57.0GB  31.5GB  logical
6      57.0GB  89.0GB  32.0GB  logical
7      89.0GB  1000GB  911GB   logical

We now have a correctly partitioned disk in our development environment. All we need to do now is to carry that over to Maas to see if it works as expected.

Customization of Curtin execution in Maas

The section “How preseeds work in MAAS” give a good outline on how to select the name of the a preseed file to restrict its usage to specific sub-groups of nodes.  In our case, we want our partitioning to apply to only one node : curtintest.  So by following the description in the section “User provided preseeds“, we need to use the following template :

{prefix}_{node_arch}_{node_subarch}_{release}_{node_name}

The fileneme that we need to choose needs to end with our hostname, curtintest. The other elements are :

  • prefix : curtin_userdata
  • osystem : amd64
  • node_subarch : generic
  • release : trusty
  • node_name : curtintest

So according to that, our filename must be curtin_userdata_amd64_generic_trusty_curtintest

On the MAAS server, we do the following :

root@maas17:~# cd /etc/maas/preseeds

root@maas17:~# cp curtin_userdata curtin_userdata_amd64_generic_trusty_curtintest

We now edit this newly created file and add our previously crafted Curtin configuration file just after the following block :

{{if third_party_drivers and driver}}
  early_commands:
  {{py: key_string = ''.join(['\\x%x' % x for x in map(ord, driver['key_binary'])])}}
  driver_00_get_key: /bin/echo -en '{{key_string}}' > /tmp/maas-{{driver['package']}}.gpg
  driver_01_add_key: ["apt-key", "add", "/tmp/maas-{{driver['package']}}.gpg"]
  driver_02_add: ["add-apt-repository", "-y", "deb {{driver['repository']}} {{node.get_distro_series()}} main"]
  driver_03_update_install: ["sh", "-c", "apt-get update --quiet && apt-get --assume-yes install {{driver['package']}}"]
  driver_04_load: ["sh", "-c", "depmod && modprobe {{driver['module']}}"]
  {{endif}}

The complete section should look just like this :

{{if third_party_drivers and driver}}
  early_commands:
  {{py: key_string = ''.join(['\\x%x' % x for x in map(ord, driver['key_binary'])])}}
   driver_00_get_key: /bin/echo -en '{{key_string}}' > /tmp/maas-{{driver['package']}}.gpg
   driver_01_add_key: ["apt-key", "add", "/tmp/maas-{{driver['package']}}.gpg"]
   driver_02_add: ["add-apt-repository", "-y", "deb {{driver['repository']}} {{node.get_distro_series()}} main"]
   driver_03_update_install: ["sh", "-c", "apt-get update --quiet && apt-get --assume-yes install {{driver['package']}}"]
   driver_04_load: ["sh", "-c", "depmod && modprobe {{driver['module']}}"]
  {{endif}}
  partitioning_commands:
   builtin: []
   01_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Partitioning disk ###'"]
   01_partition_make_label: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mklabel","msdos","'"]
   02_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","primary","1049k","538M","'"]
   02_partition_set_flag: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","set","1","boot","on","'"]
   04_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","primary","538M","4538M","'"]
   05_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","extended","4538M","1000G","'"]
   06_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","25.5G","57G","'"]
   07_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","57G","89G","'"]
   08_partition_make_part: ["/sbin/parted", "/dev/vda", "-s", "'","mkpart","logical","89G","1000G","'"]
   09_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Creating filesystems ###'"]
   10_partition_make_fs: ["/sbin/mkfs", "-t", "ext4", "/dev/vda1"]
   11_partition_label_fs: ["/sbin/e2label", "/dev/vda1", "cloudimg-boot"]
   12_partition_make_fs: ["/sbin/mkfs", "-t", "ext4", "/dev/vda2"]
   13_partition_label_fs: ["/sbin/e2label", "/dev/vda2", "cloudimg-rootfs"]
   14_partition_mount_fs: ["sh", "-c", "mount /dev/vda2 $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT"]
   15_partition_mkdir: ["sh", "-c", "mkdir $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT/boot"]
   16_partition_mount_fs: ["sh", "-c", "mount /dev/vda1 $TARGET_MOUNT_POINT/boot"]
   17_partition_announce: ["echo", "'### Filling /etc/fstab ###'"]
   18_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo 'LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs / ext4 defaults 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]
   19_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo 'LABEL=cloudimg-boot /boot ext4 defaults 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]
   20_partition_make_swap: ["sh", "-c", "mkswap /dev/vda6"]
   21_partition_make_fstab: ["sh", "-c", "echo '/dev/vda6 none swap sw 0 0' >> $OUTPUT_FSTAB"]

Now that maas is properly configured for curtintest, complete the test by deploying a charm in a Juju environment where curtintest is properly comissionned.  In that example, curtintest is the only available node so maas will systematically pick it up :

caribou@avogadro:~$ juju status
environment: maas17
machines:
“0”:
agent-state: started
agent-version: 1.24.0
dns-name: state-server.maas
instance-id: /MAAS/api/1.0/nodes/node-2555c398-1bf9-11e5-a7c4-525400214658/
series: trusty
hardware: arch=amd64 cpu-cores=1 mem=1024M
state-server-member-status: has-vote
services: {}
networks:
maas-eth0:
provider-id: maas-eth0
cidr: 192.168.100.0/24

caribou@avogadro:~$ juju deploy mysql
Added charm “cs:trusty/mysql-25” to the environment.

Once the mysql charm has been deployed, connect to the unit to confirm that the partitioning was successful

caribou@avogadro:~$ juju ssh mysql/0
ubuntu@curtintest:~$ sudo -s
root@curtintest:~# parted /dev/vda print
Model: Virtio Block Device (virtblk)
Disk /dev/vda: 1074GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
 
Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
1      1049kB  538MB   537MB   primary   ext4         boot
2      538MB   4538MB  4000MB  primary   ext4
3      4538MB  1000GB  995GB   extended               lba
5      25.5GB  57.0GB  31.5GB  logical
6      57.0GB  89.0GB  32.0GB  logical
7      89.0GB  1000GB  911GB   logical
ubuntu@curtintest:~$ swapon -s
Filename Type Size Used Priority
/dev/vda6 partition 31249404 0 -1

Conclusion

Customizing disks and partition using curtin is possible but currently not sufficiently documented. I hope that this write up will be helpful.  Sustained development on Curtin is currently done to improve these functionalities so things will definitively get better.

Ce contenu a été publié dans Canonical, Cloud, Technical, Ubuntu Server. Vous pouvez le mettre en favoris avec ce permalien.

3 réponses à Custom partitioning with Maas and Curtin

  1. Alex dit :

    thanks for the nice post, unfortunately I got an error that I did not succeeded in solving:
    ./tools/launch $BOOTIMG –publish $ROOTTGZ

    gives me an error:
    cannot create connection on virbr0.
    bridges do not exist.

    can you give me some good head up ?

    thanks in advance

    • Louis dit :

      Hello,

      I’m very sorry for being so late in replying, looks like my blog engine never told me about the comment.

      Looks to me like your qemu environment is expecting the virbr0 bridge to be available so the NIC in the VM can be configured.

      Off the top of my head, this is the only think I can think of.

      …Louis

  2. Christian dit :

    hi

    does this somehow still work in maas 2.2 beta or 2.1?
    i want to ask before i spend alot of time trying.

    christian

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